Political System

Bulgaria is a Parliamentary Republic. The official language is Bulgarian and the religion of most Bulgarians is Eastern Orthodox Christianity. The national state emblem of the Republic of Bulgaria is an upright golden lion on a dark red, shield-shaped background. The national emblem is depicted on its state seal. The flag consists of three colors: white, green and red, laid horizontally from top to bottom. Bulgaria’s capital is Sofia.

All citizens are equal before the law. No limitations on rights or privileges are allowed based on of race, citizenship, ethnicity, sex, national origin, religion, education, beliefs, political affiliations, personal or social position, or property status. The state authority is divided into legislative, executive and legal branches. The political life of Bulgaria is based on the principle of political pluralism.

The basis of the Bulgarian economy is free economic initiative. The state creates conditions for the free development of science, education, and the arts and provides support for them. The state also makes provisions to preserve the country’s historical and cultural heritage.

According to the Constitution, the basic institutions of the state include the National Assembly (Parliament); the President; the Council of Ministers; legal bodies such as the courts, the prosecutor’s office; the Constitutional Court; the Higher Court Council; and other organs of local self-government.

The National Assembly is vested with legislative authority and exercises parliamentary supervision. The President is the head of the state, embodying the unity of the nation and representing the Republic of Bulgaria internationally.

The Council of Ministers is in charge of and enacts the external and internal policies of the country, in conformity with the Constitution and the laws of the land. The legal authorities defend the rights and the legal interests of citizens, of juridical people, and of the state.

The territory of the Republic of Bulgaria is divided into municipalities and counties. At the moment, there are 264 municipalities, 28 administrative areas.